2. Help Desk

2.1 Help Desk Technicians

2.1.1 ISP Help Desk Organization 

            ISP is a place where many people berbinis via internet connection and get support for problems that occur with the connection. Because of the knowledge and experience of fixing problems in connection with a well owned by the ISP help desk technician. then to set up a relief team to ensure that the problem has been done well and quickly to customer satisfaction. highly competitive business is providing internet service.

At an ISP, there are usually three levels of customer support:

  • Level 1 is for immediate support handled by junior-level help desk technicians.
  • Level 2 handles calls that are escalated to more experienced telephone support.
  • Level 3 is for calls that cannot be resolved by phone support and require a visit by an on-site technician

2.1.1 Roles of ISP Technicians

            at the time failed to solve the problem at level 1, then the matter will be sent to level 2 support. Tasks and responsibilities of Level 2 technician that is similar to the Level 1 technician, but they are at a higher skill level. Organizations that provide managed servicesdisebut as Managed Service Providers (MSP)

            When an ISP that provides managed services, often requiring a technician to visit the customer site for the purpose of installation and support. This type of service is a Level 3 support.

Level 3 support is generally in accordance with the Service Level Agreement (SLA). SLA resemble an insurance policy, as it provides coverage or services if there is a computer or a network problem.

2.1.3 Interacting with costomers

Help desk technicians may be required to provide telephone support, email support, web-based support, online chat support, and possibly on-site support.

that must be owned by a qualified technician help desk:

v  Excellent interpersonal skills and effective communication skills, both oral and written

v  work independently and as part of team.It is important for technicians desk

v  Able to handle customer issues with speed, efficiency, and professionalism, problem solving

v  be able to answer these questions in a template format, and maintain appropriate procedures increased ticket.

v  Welcome the customers happy and to be professional and polite throughout the call.

v  Good communication

v  know how to make customers feel comfortable and confident in the skills of technicians.

2.2.1 Using the OSI Model

            when the connection problems reported to the help desk, so many ways to analyze the problem for example by using a layered approach, an approach that leyered. network teksnisi familiar with the various functions that occur as a message is created, presented, and interpreted by the network devices and hosts on the network.

            Transferring data over a network is best imagined with seven layers of the Open Systems Interconnection, commonly referred to as the OSI model. The OSI model breaks network communication into multiple processes. Each process is a small part of the larger task. for example, in a vehicle manufacturing plant, the entire vehicle is assembled by one person. Instead the vehicle moves from station to station where special teams adding certain components. Vehicle assembly complex task made ​​easier by breaking it down into manageable tasks and logically. This process also makes troubleshooting easier. When there is a problem in the manufacturing process, it is possible to isolate the problem to specific tasks in which the flaw was introduced, and then fix it. In the same way, the OSI model can be used as a means to focus on the layers when troubleshooting to identify and resolve network problems.

The seven layers of the OSI model is divided into two parts:

  • The upper layers : is sometimes used to refer to any layer above the Transport layer of the OSI model. The top layer deals with the application functionality and are generally only implemented in software. Highest layer, the application layer, closest to the end user
  • undercoat : is sometimes used to refer to any layer below the Session layer. The combined functions of the lower layers handles data transport. Physical layer and Data Link layers are implemented in hardware and software. The physical layer is closest to the physical network media, or network cabling. The physical layer actually put the information to the media.

End stations, such as client and server. Network devices are only concerned with the bottom layer. Hub works at Layer 1, moved at Layers 1, 2 and routers at Layers 1, 2 and 3, and firewalls at Layers 1, 2, 3, and 4.

2.2.2 OSI model protocols and technologies

            make use of the OSI model when an important framework for understanding the functions you troubelshooting each layer. The OSI model divides the task of sending and receiving emails becomes smaller, the different measures corresponding to seven layers.

Step 1: The top layer is made ​​of data.

            When a user sends an email message, the alphanumeric characters in the message are converted into data that can travel across the network. Layers 7, 6, and 5 are responsible for ensuring that the message is placed in a format that can be understood by the application running on the host destination (encoding).

Step 2: Layer 4 packet data for end-to-end transport.

            The data consists of email messages packaged for transport network at Layer 4. Layer 4 break messages into smaller segments. A title is placed on each segment which shows TCP or UDP port number corresponding to the correct application of the application layer. The functions in the transport layer indicates the type of service delivery. Email using TCP segments, so sending packets acknowledged by the destination.

Step 3: Layer 3 adds the network IP address information.

            The email data received from the transport layer is put into a packet that contains a header with the source and destination IP network addresses. Routers use the destination address to direct the packets across the network along the appropriate path. Incorrectly configured IP address information on the source or destination system can cause Layer 3 problems to occur. Because routers also use IP address information, the router configuration errors can cause problems at this layer.

Step 4: Layer 2 adds the data link layer header and trailer.

            Every network device in the path from source to destination, including the sending host, encapsulates the packet into a frame. Frame contains the physical address of the device that is connected directly to the next network link. Every device in the network path requires framing chosen so that it can connect to the next device. Switches and network interface cards (NICs) using the information in the frame to convey the message to the correct destination. NIC driver is not correct, interface cards, and hardware problems with the Layer 2 switch can cause the problem to occur.

Step 5: Layer 1 converts data to bits for transmission.

            Frame is converted into a pattern of 1s and 0s (bits) for transmission on the medium. A clock function allows the device to distinguish these bits as they travel across the medium. Media can change along the path between the source and destination. For example, an email message can start in one Ethernet LAN, across a campus backbone fiber, and cross serial WAN link to another until it reaches the destination Ethernet LAN remotely. Layer 1 problem can be caused by a loose or incorrect wiring, faulty interface card, or power failures. On the receiving host, the process described in steps 1 through 5 is reversed, with the message the way back to the appropriate application layer

2.2.3 Troubleshooting the OSI model

OSI model defines the protocols, hardware, and other specifications that operate in seven layers. basic troubleshooting procedures include the following steps:

1. Defining the problem.

2. Isolating the cause of the problem.

3. Solve the problem.

  • Identify and prioritize alternative solutions.
  • Select one of the alternatives as a solution.
  • Implement the solution.
  • Evaluate the solution.
  • OSI model can be used as a guide for troubleshooting. Using a layered model, there are three different problem-solving approaches that a technician can use to isolate the problem:

       Bottom-Up – bottom-up approach starts with the physical components of the network and works its way up layers of the OSI model. Bottom-up approach to problem solving is an effective and efficient for suspected physical problems.

       Top-Down – top-down approach starts with the user’s application and work your way down the layers of the OSI model. This approach begins with the assumption that the problem is with the application and not the network infrastructure.

       Divide-and-Conquer – The divide-and-conquer approach more commonly used by experienced network engineers. Technicians make an educated guess targeting the problem layer, and then based on the results of observations, move up or down the OSI layers.

Using the OSI model as a guide, the help desk technician can query the customer to help define the problem and isolate the cause.

Layer 1 Troubleshooting

Layer 1 problem often involves wiring and electricity, and is the reason for many help desk calls. Some problems are more common Layer 1 includes:

Power off the device                                                          Power device is disconnected

Loose network cable connection                                 One type of cable

Damage to the cable network                                      Damaged wireless access point

One wireless settings such as SSID

Troubleshooting Layer 2

            When a little troubleshooting a problem, it may be difficult to isolate a Layer 2 problem. A technician in place to check whether the NIC is installed and working properly. Reseating the NIC, or replace suspected faulty NIC with a known good NIC, helping to isolate the problem. The same process can be done with a network switch.

Layer 3 Problems

At Layer 3, the technician needs to investigate the logical addressing used in the network, such as IP address scheme. If the network uses IP addressing, the technician verifies that the device has the correct settings, such as:

Assigned IP address in the network               Correct subnet mask

Correct default gateway                                   Other settings are required, such as DHCP or DNS

Layer 4 Troubleshooting

            If Layers 1 through 3 all appear to be operating normally and technicians can successfully ping the IP address of the remote server, it is time to examine higher layers. For example, if the network firewall is used throughout the flow, it is important to check that the application TCP or UDP port is open and no filter list to block traffic to the port.


Layer 5 to 7

            The technician should also check the application configuration. For example, when troubleshooting an email issue, ensure that the application is configured with the correct shipping and receiving email server information. It is also necessary to ensure that the domain name resolution function as expected. For remote technician, higher layers can be examined using tools other network utilities, such as packet sniffer to see the traffic as it crosses the network. A network applications, such as Telnet, can also be used to view the configuration. 

2.3.1 help desk troubleshooting scenarios

            The number and types of calls received by the help desk can vary extensively. Some of the most common calls include problems with email, host configuration, and connectivity.

Email Issues

Can receive but not send

Can send but not receive

Cannot send or receive

Nobody can reply to messages

Host Configuration Issues
A common issue that can prevent connectivity to the Internet or other network resources is improperly configured host addressing information. In environments where hosts are configured to dynamically receive an IP address from an assignment server, such as a DHCP server, the server may fail or become unreachable due to network issues.

Customer Connectivity Issues

Connectivity problems are more common with new customers trying to connect for the first time. However, sometimes existing customers encounter connectivity issues. First-time customers may have problems with installing the hardware as well as software configuration settings. Existing customers notice connectivity problems when they cannot open a web page or connect to instant messaging or email.

There are many reasons why a customer has no connectivity, including the following:

Delinquent payments for services

Hardware failures

Physical layer failures

Incorrect application settings

Missing application plug-ins

Missing applications

2.3.2 creating anf using help desk records

When a Level 1 help desk technician receives a call, there is a process to follow to gather information. There is also a special system to store and retrieve relevant information. It is very important to gather information correctly in case the call should be increased to a Layer 2 or require on-site visits. Meeting information and record the process started as soon as the technician answered the phone. When customers identify who they are, technician access to relevant customer information. Typically, database applications used to manage customer information. The information was transferred to a disturbance ticket, or incident reports. This document could be a piece of paper in a paper filing system or an electronic tracking system that is designed to follow the problem-solving process from start to finish. Everyone who worked on the matter is expected to record what was done at the ticket interference. When the call is in place necessary, disruption ticket information can be converted into a work order on-site technicians can take to the customer site. When a problem is solved, the solution was documented in the customer work order or trouble ticket, and within-document knowledge base for future reference. 

2.3.3 Costumer site procedures

There are four steps in place before beginning technicians perform troubleshooting or repair at the customer site:

Step 1. Provide proper identification to the customer.

Step 2. Review the work order ticket or interference with the customer to verify that the information is correct.

Step 3. Communicate the status of any problems identified and action is expected to take a technician at a customer site that day.

Step 4. Getting permission from the customer to start the work.

Technicians should verify all items on the ticket interference. Once technicians become familiar with all the issues, the work can begin. Technician is responsible for checking all devices and network settings, and run each utility is required.


Use the ladder to reach high locations to install network cables and to install or troubleshoot wireless access in places that are hard to reach. To reduce the risk of falls from ladders or dripping equipment while climbing ladders, working with partners when possible.

High or Hazardous Locations

Sometimes network equipment and cables are located in the high and dangerous places, such as on the side of the building, on the roof, or in the internal structures such as the elevator shaft, which is not accessible by stairs. The work done on the location of this type should be done very carefully. Using a safety harness reduces the risk of falls.

Electrical Equipment

If there is a risk of damaging or come in contact with power lines when handling hardware, consult with electricity from customers about the steps that can be taken to reduce the risk of electric shock. Come in contact with electrical equipment can cause serious injury.

awkward Spaces. Network equipment is often located in a cramped and awkward. Ensure that the work area is good tersinari and ventilated. Determine the best way to lift, install, and remove equipment to minimize the risk.

Heavy Equipment

            Network devices can be bulky and heavy. Plan to have the correct equipment and trained personnel when equipment needs to be installed or removed at the customer site.